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Tytuł: Etymologia i konotacje nazw drogich kamieni w twórczości Adama Mickiewicza oraz Juliusza Słowackiego. Studium leksykalno-stylistyczne
Inne tytuły: Etymology and connotations of names of gemstones in the works of Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Slowacki. Lexical-stylistic study
Autorzy: Andrejczyk, Małgorzata
Słowa kluczowe: nazwy drogich kamieni
Adam Mickiewicz
Juliusz Słowacki
Data wydania: 2020
Data dodania: 20-wrz-2021
Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku
Abstrakt: In this book, I focused on selected aspects of the language and vocabulary of Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki. I made it a goal to show how, in Romanticism, this piece of the world was modeled which in the Polish language is determined by the terms of precious stones or decorative stones . I to want reproduce the image of semantic gems disclosure contained in this portion of the Romantics interpretation of reality. Undertaken analysis show to which the extent the poetic image of reality creation of using the vocabulary of decorative minerals are standardized, in which individualized. I distinguish stylistic treatments, built with the names of precious metals, common to both poets. My main intention is to show how the use the names of precious and semi-precious stones stands in line with the general trends era, and how much goes beyond romance and refers to other eras of Polish literature. Therefore, I take into account the issues of how these Romantic poets used literary tradition in the functioning of the analyzed periods preceding the vocabulary of Romanticism, but also refer to the individual characteristics of the language of both artists and their legacy of poetry, with special emphasis on semantic DROGIE KAMIENIE circle. I make an attempt to show how knowledge of precious and semi-precious stones was in the nineteenth century poetic fixed or so. common sense, the current or the other (eg. scientific specialist). This dissertation is an attempt to address these questions. I think that big possibilities of interpretation give a comparison of texts by various authors, I decided to work on two most prominent representatives of the Romantic age – Mickiewicz and Słowacki. As an analytical material I used the names of ornamental stones, including formative formations created on the basis of the names that have been taken from the Słownik języka Adama Mickiewicza edited by Konrad Górski and Stefan Hrabiec, literary texts by Adam Mickiewicz (Dzieła vol. I–IV), and the works by Juliusz Słowacki (Pisma vol. I–IV). It has been said a lot about the artistic language of Mickiewicz and Słowacki. But is all this? What's more, many thesis on the vocabulary and style of the greatest artists of Polish Romanticism still inspire and encourage further exploration. There is no doubt that the creation of Mickiewicz and Słowacki offers great opportunities for interpretation. Romantics’ unlimited imagination, supported by an uncommon talent and great artistry affect the complexity of romantic poetry. Do not also forget that the poetic artistry of the authors is based largely on the ability to combine personal experiences or individual interests with socio-cultural changes that took place in that era. This phenomenon is quite obvious and results from the specific situation of Polish Romanticism. Writers, giving subjective feelings and emotional turbulence in specific connotations and stylistic entanglement, created a new literary world. Due to the specific nature of that era, resulting among others from the historical situation of the nation, the creators often were forced to leave their homeland. Thus, literary profiling of gems, precious above all, takes place at the level of language and vocabulary, but primarily on semantic and ideological plan of a literary work . The consequence of this is to draw attention of linguists on style creating lexical function that energizes and encourages us to study specific words. Taking into account the relationship between the word and the atmosphere, emotional climate, landscape or piece landscape, reflect the whole of the literature of the poet, represent general creative trends of the author. Comparison of the two writers’ works, in terms of the use of vocabulary related to precious stones, is still an open area that requires special attention. Undoubtedly, a more detailed description of naming of precious and ornamental stones, hiding many secrets and many interpretative possibilities is a must, especially when it comes to such a unique literary period, which is romanticism. Hence is my vote on this issue. Proposed analysis of the names of jewels is characterized not only by conventionalized picture of the world associated with the nomenclature of precious minerals, shows characteristics considered important from the point of view of nineteenth-century language user , but mainly describes the image created in the contemporary poetic texts. With regard to the names of the highest attendance I try to give a full conceptual model of the tested word, thanks to the definition of the open concept expressed by Jerzy Bartmiński and and Ryszard Tokarski with subsequent expansions and modifications (see: Bartmiński, Tokarski 1993; Tokarski 2004). The essence of the open definition is to consider the significance in terms of interpretation, a broader view, taking into account the context of the expression. Therefore it can be concluded that the sign language and its meanings are involved in a dual relationship: they refer to the user language and extra-linguistic reality, a particularly important influence on the shape of the semantic definition has a man as a subject is its interpretation (Bartmiński, Tokarski 1993). Not without reason, modern lexical semantics, assuming a cultural nature of language, is seeking an answer to the question, what people mean when they use a word (Wierzbicka 1999: 409). Culturally determined meanings of words show how we think about the world, how we arrange, categorize and valuate it (Tokarski 2001: 231). Such defined definition of a word allows you to show the overall conceptual framework of the word, in this case a name of a gemstone. It is worth mentioning that the basis of the formula of an open definition is adoption of the extended meaning of the jewel name in conjunction with the concept of connotation. The name of the stone is therefore considered in a very broad way, from corresponding characteristics, forming semantic center to the vast repertoire of optional features, the so-called semantic connotations. Discussion on and identification of language features of gemstones revealed the place and meaning of the name within the vocabulary of the nineteenth century and its functioning in general. Carrying out such an analysis became possible by reference to the etymology of the word, the connotation of conventional, so that the image of precious stone was reconstructed in the fixed language. It is worth mentioning that the poems, from one side can be used as verification material, because the text will help you find confirmation for the conventional characteristics, but less well established and having few credentials in the data system. On the other hand, artistic texts are helpful in revealing the characteristics of conventional facts and make it possible to show further modifications of meaning of words in the language which are less clear, more difficult or impossible to reproduce as a result of analysis of the systemic facts (Pajdzińska, Tokarski: 1996: 143-158). The shown phenomenon makes it possible to reconstruct a stable, clear stem and reach semantic meaning of the elements that are poorly preserved and deeper hidden. It allows you to show not only the relationship between the various components of semantic names, but primarily emphasizes the relationship between culture and language, which is its important component. Thus, this work is a part of a broader trend in cognitive research. The dissertation consists of five main chapters. In the introductory part I define the purpose of the dissertation, I set the material for analysis. Then I present the current state of research on the nomenclature of decorative and precious stones. Because the style, which was used by Mickiewicz and by Słowacki is important for the dissertation, therefore, in the Wstęp I make a short description of the language of poets, referring to the selected works of linguistics. I mention the most important monographs devoted to the works of both poets. Chapter I is entitled – Słownik. The overall concept of this part of the book representation of the diversity of vocabulary in real terms (naturally) calling precious and decorative stones. I also note on tokens characterizing the properties of individual ores. The collected names are presented in alphabetical order. Entries in the dictionary include all the meanings of tokens: from real to metaphoric. Each meaning is followed by words connectivity. The test material is rich in stylistic transformation, mainly metaphorical and more. First of all, there are connections giving rise to associations with referents outside the circle of precious and semi-precious stones, that is, those that really do not exist side by side. These tokens were also included in the dictionary. The material contained in the lexical part includes self-referents: especially nouns, but also verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The dictionary was designed according to the concept presented and used in the work on vocabulary Stefan Żeromski titled Słownictwo pism Stefana Żeromskiego (see: Handke 2007). These works made me develop and construct the dictionary, showing the richness of lexical works of Mickiewicz and Sowacki from the circle theme of expensive minerals. Chapter II is entitled – Semantyczne bogactwo nazw drogich kamieni. In Chapter III entitled – Konotacje i etymologia nazw kamieni szlachetnych, I pay attention to the etymology and connotations of specific names, in order to complete the language ornamental gems image. To write this part of the essay, in such a shape inspired me work: Słownik stereotypów i symboli ludowych, v.1, Kosmos, especially the section Drogie Kamienie (SSiSL) and Etymologia i konotacja nazw kamieni analizowanych in the Słowniku stereotypów i symboli ludowych (z. 1 i 2) (Brzozowska 2009: 44-71). These works occupy an important place in my analysis because ideas include individual, of the names of precious stones that are motivated and culturally conditioned. This section is divided into two main sections. In the first section, entitled: Nazwy drogich kamieni wspólne dla obu poetów, discuss naming generalizing, often performing the function hiperonimu and including the names of different types of precious stones and precious, eg.: valuable stone (such as in the sense of 'jewel', 'brilliant'). I draw attention to the specific names of precious and semi-precious stones, their etymology, symbolism and conceptualization: Amber - a symbol of the sun, Yarrow - a healing stone, Crystal - union of spirit and matter, Pearl - divine tear. In the next section, entitled: The names of precious stones found only in one of the poets, I focus on precious stones names appearing in poetic texts only one creator. Visited overall analysis of the material, proved that these names are found in the works of Mickiewicz and Słowacki much less intense than the others, sometimes even in the material appear only once. In this chapter such noun names were considered that characterizing the work of the author of Pan Tadeusz, ie.: granat, koralek, perło. The poetic works of Słowacki is characterized by new or occasionally encountered names of precious stones, type of beryl, hyacinth, turquoise, cornelian, opal, selenite, turquoise. In addition, one can distinguish the class of neologisms, characterizing the poems the author Kordian, for example. rozrubinić or verb formations rarely found in contemporary Polish language, as brylantować, krysztalić. Characteristic for the Słowacki language are diminutive names: krysztalik, perełeczka and expressions such as: perły kałakuckie, kamień krwawnikowy, kamienie szmagdowe. Despite often single-use individual designates, vocabulary relating to the precious ores is presented in a diverse, especially when it comes to poetry by Słowacki. A very important observation seems to be that in the texts of both poets there are no restrictions in terms of connectivity the names of gemstones with other words. The terms of the semantic field, associated with decorative stones refer both to abstracts, for example: to brilliant a thought; souls bright as diamonds; in the air as in a diamond, as well as designates a specific dimension, eg: lips like corals; ring of yarrow; from crystal window. Although both the authors represent the same literary period, this type of imaging and the way of conceptualizing reality is presented in a completely different manner. It is therefore particularly to be emphasized that the system of values professed by that poet, philosopher, belief, mental or physical conditions have a significant impact on the development of individualized poetic conventions. With accumulated vocabulary for semantic DROGIE KAMIENIE emerges not only a specific, linguistic picture of the world presented in the artistic texts these romantic poets, but also - to put it more broadly - a comprehensive model of a specific portion of the world built by writers. This allows you to read romantic works by analysis of its vocabulary topic. This, in turn, allows you to draw general conclusions: Mickiewicz poetry and the Słowacki reveal not only the aesthetic tastes of artists, but also show their perception of the world, the feelings, creation and interpretation . I am aware that I the problems discussed by me do not provide clear answers to many questions, if only because of the fragmentation of research undertaken by me. However, they allow to estimate the characteristics of the language of selected works by Mickiewicz and Słowacki including the vocabulary of precious and semi-precious stones; show the names of the fundamental importance of the precious stones for building diverse poetic works in the same literature period.
Nota biograficzna: Małgorzata Andrejczyk – doktor nauk humanistycznych w dyscyplinie językoznawstwo, adiunkt w Katedrze Stylistyki i Lingwistyki Antropologicznej Wydziału Filologicznego Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku. Zainteresowania badawcze: słownictwo tematyczne XIX-wiecznych twórców, idiolekt Adama Mickiewicza oraz Juliusza Słowackiego, konotacje nazw drogich kamieni w utworach Mickiewicza i Słowackiego. Autorka monografii „Etymologia i konotacje nazw drogich kamieni w twórczości Adama Mickiewicza oraz Juliusza Słowackiego. Studium leksykalno-stylistyczne” oraz artykułów dotyczących słownictwa meteorologicznego w „Balladach i romansach” oraz „Sonetach krymskich” Adama Mickiewicza, metaforyki astronomiczno-meteorologicznej „Sonetów krymskich” Adama Mickiewicza, nazw kamieni szlachetnych w „Słowniku wileńskim” i w „Słowniku języka Adama Mickiewicza”, czy też miejsca i roli gemmonimów w polszczyźnie.
Sponsorzy: Projekt finansowany w ramach programu Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego pod nazwą "Regionalna Inicjatywa Doskonałości" w latach 2019-2022, nr projektu: 009/RID/2018/19, kwota finansowania 8791222,00 zł
ISBN: 978-83-7431-609-5
Typ Dokumentu: Book
Właściciel praw: © Copyright by Uniwersytet w Białymstoku Białystok 2020
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