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dc.contributor.authorKamionowski, Jerzy-
dc.identifier.citationIdea. Studia nad strukturą i rozwojem pojęć filozoficznych, vol. 28/2, 2016, s. 210-232pl
dc.description.abstractThe article entitled “'Superreal images for SUPERREAL People.' Black Self-Representation as Self-Invention in Poetry and Visual Art of the Black Arts Movement: The Wall of Respect” provides an analysis of the representation of African Americans by Black Arts Movement poets and visual artists involved in making the Wall of Respect, the most famous Black Power mural. Resisting, challenging and rejecting the controlling white gaze, through their verbal and visual acts of self-representation, they made an attempt to achieve a “better and truer self” for American blacks, which resulted in black myth-making and self-invention. That phenomenon is explored here through an examination of the history, legend and aesthetics of the mural, which is approached as a multimedia Poem of the People, whose interplay of various artistic forms of expression is aimed at liberation from the oppressiveness of white cultural hegemony, achieving “visibility,” and practicing “truly black” image-making. More specifically, special attention is given to its literary component – Amiri Baraka's poem “SOS,” which is embedded in the mural, and two poems entitled “The Wall,” written for that occasion by Haki Madhubuti and Gwendolyn Brooks, the latter poem read at the opening ceremony by its author. Detailed reading of the poems demonstrates how the written/spoken word assisted and enhanced visual black self-invention and projected-cum-generated a sense of togetherness and collective identification by creating an ultra-positive image of “new blacks,” and stigmatizing “negro toms” who stood for old-fashioned integrationism. Also, through condensed references to theories pertaining to the nature of image, visual representation and the power of the gaze (by Plato, Heidegger, Sartre and Lacan), put together with concepts of African American culture and expression (Houston Baker Jr.'s “the Black (W)hole” and Robert Stepto's “immersion”), philosophical aspects of the Black Arts Movement's artistic strategy of black self-invention as well as its limitations are
dc.publisherWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstokupl
dc.subjectBlack Aestheticpl
dc.subjectblack muralspl
dc.subjectBlack Powerpl
dc.subjectblack self-representationpl
dc.subjectGwendolyn Brookspl
dc.subjectHaki Madhubutipl
dc.subjectimages of blackspl
dc.subjectthe Wall of Respectpl
dc.title“Superreal images for superreal people”. Black self-representation as self-invention in poetry and visual art of the black arts movement: the wall of respectpl
dc.description.AffiliationInstytut Neofilologii UwBpl
dc.description.referencesBaker, Houston A., Jr. Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature. A Vernacular Theory. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press,
dc.description.referencesBaraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). “SOS.” Black Magic Poetry 1961-1967. Indianapolis and New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1969. 115.
dc.description.referencesBaraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). Home: Social Essays. New York: William Morrow, 2009 [1966]. 197-204.
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dc.description.referencesBrooks, Gwendolyn. “The Wall,” In the Mecca. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, 1968: 42-43.
dc.description.referencesCockcroft, Eva Sperling, James Cockcroft, and John Pitman Weber. Toward a People.s Art: The Contemporary Mural Movement. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
dc.description.referencesCrawford, Margo Natalie. “Black Light on the Wall of Respect: The Chicago Black Arts Movement.” New Thoughts on the Black Arts Movement. Ed. Lisa Gail Collins and Margo NatalieCrawford. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2006. 23-42.
dc.description.referencesDonaldson, Jeff. “Africobra 1: African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists.” Black World 19.12 (1970): 80-89.
dc.description.referencesDonaldson, Jeff. “The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of the Wall of Respect Movement.” International Review of African American Art 15.1 (1991), 22-26.
dc.description.referencesEllison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1968 (1952).
dc.description.referencesFabio, Sarah Webster, “Who Speaks Negro? What Is Black?” Negro Digest 17. 9-10 (1968): 33-37.
dc.description.referencesFine, Elsa Hong. “The Black Arts Movement.” The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, Inc., 1971: 198-210.
dc.description.referencesGreaney, Maura E. “The Power of the Urban Canvas: Paint, Politics, and Mural Art Policy.” New England Journal of Public Policy 18.1 (2002): 7-48.
dc.description.referencesHeidegger, Martin. History of the Concept of Time: Prolegomena. Trans. Theodore Kisiel. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press,
dc.description.referencesHenderson, Stephen. “Introduction: The Forms of Things Unknown.” Understanding the New Black Poetry: Black Speech & Black Music as Poetic References, New York: William Morrow, 1973: 3-69.
dc.description.referencesKarenga, Ron. “Black Cultural Nationalism.” The Black Aesthetic. Ed. Addison Gayle, Jr. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971: 32-38.
dc.description.referencesLacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book XI: The FOur Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998 [1973].pl
dc.description.referencesLechte, John. “Some Fallacies and Truths Concerning the Image in Old and New Media.” Journal of Visual Culture 10.3 (2011): 354-371.
dc.description.referencesLee, Don L. (Haki Madhubuti). “The Wall.” Directionscore: New and Selected Poems. Detroit, Michigan: Broadside Press, 1971: 66-67.
dc.description.referencesLenin, Vladimir Ilich. “Speech Delivered at an All-Russia Conference of Political Education Workers of Gubernia and Uyezd Education Departments.” On Culture and Cultural Revolution. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1966:
dc.description.referencesLodge, David. The Modes of Modern Writing: Metaphor, Metonymy, and the Typology of Modern Literature. London: Edward Arnold Publishers,
dc.description.referencesNeal, Larry. “And Shine Swam On.” Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing. Ed. LeRoi Jones and Larry Neal. New York: William Morrow, 1968:
dc.description.referencesNeal, Larry. “Any Day Now: Black Art and Black Liberation.” Ebony 26. 10 (1969):
dc.description.referencesRobert Stepto, From Behind the Veil: A Study of Afro-American Narrative. Urbana: University of Illinois Press,
Występuje w kolekcji(ach):Artykuły naukowe (WFil)
Idea. Studia nad strukturą i rozwojem pojęć filozoficznych, 2016, XXVIII/2

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