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Tytuł: Towards New Challenges in the Process of Developing Intercultural Competences of the Teaching Staff in Poland
Autorzy: Młynarczuk-Sokołowska, Anna
Nikitorowicz, Jerzy
Data wydania: 2020
Data dodania: 5-sie-2020
Konferencja: VI Virtual International Forum on Teacher Education “Perspectives and priorities of teacher education in times of change, choice and challenge” (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Abstrakt: Research problem. Due to migration and dynamic socio-cultural processes the space of contemporary Polish education is changing. Currently, the participants of formal education are not only members of the majority group and indigenous minorities, but also students with migrant background and re-emigrants. Work in culturally diverse environment continually requires form teachers and educators developing intercultural competences. There is no only one universal model of education that would enable the teaching staff to deal with all situations arising at the junctions of cultures. As part of the National Census of 2011 conducted by the Central Statistical Office, 97,09% of respondents declared Polish national-ethnic identification. In Poland we have got 16 different provinces. They are different in a cultural way. The most multicultural territories in Poland are the borderlines. Podlasie (region to which the article content applies) is located in the north-eastern part of Poland. This is multicultural region (Polish-Belarusian-Lithuanian borderland). The capital city of Podlasie is Białystok. Cultural diversity of Podlasie is created mainly by minorities (Belarusians, Tatars, Romanies, Lithuanians). In recent years we have observed an increase in the number of economic immigrants (Belarusian and Ukrainian). In Podlasie are located also two refugee centers. The group of refugees is composed of Ukrainian and Chechen people. In Bialystok schools mainly study Polish students, students form minorities and more and more immigrant and re-immigrant students. The most multicultural school is a Primary School No. 26 (located close to the refugee center). Already 80. refugee students attend classes there. The literature offers a series of definitions used to describe intercultural com¬petence. Sławomir Magala defines intercultural competence in a metaphorical and in result general sense. According to Magala, the competence can be compared to a backpack or a tool box, gradually filled with tools by people when they enco¬unter different “software” of the mind (Magala 2011). Intercultural education prepares us for establishing a positive relationship with Strangers and Others. This type of education is an attempt to create a society open to diversity, otherness and difference, already at the school level. Learning from Others and learning-teaching Others as a civilisation requirement, may soon become one of the most frequently discussed issues in social debate (Szczurek-Boruta, 2014: 77). Intercultural education, as a lifelong process of acquiring intercultural competence (Młynarczuk-Sokołowska, 2015: 72–78), should address all social groups, and be an important element of children, youth and adult education. This type of education is an attempt to create a society open to diversity, Otherness and Difference, already at the kindergarten and school level (The Concept of Perceiving and Interacting with the Other, Holistic Concept of Intercultural Education, Nikitorowicz 2005, 2018). Preparing teachers and in result, other people that work in the field of edu¬cation, requires a methodical knowledge regarding goals, content, methods, and forms of regional, multicultural and intercultural education. Practical experience acquired through contact with different cultures, foreign language, etc., is also ne¬cessary to support the acquired knowledge. Methodical knowledge and practical experience should be considered as an integral element of teaching staff s cultural competence. Considering the fact, that educational reality is developing dynamically, new groups of students with migrant background “appear” in educational institutions, and with them, new chal¬lenges regarding educational and didactic tasks, each tutor, teacher and educator should express cognitive and existential self-reliance, and skill in inspiring deve¬lopment and ethical-moral strengthening of individuals they educate (Dąbrowa, Markowska-Manista, 2010: 47). Beside training of teaching staff for the imple¬mentation of intercultural education, as noted by Tadeusz Lewowicki, a certain attitude of readiness is also important (Lewowicki, 2008: 23). The specific content of intercultural education, especially the difficult issues, openly discussed in the public discourse (e.g. the issue of admitting and the integration of refugees), may be met with parents’ resistance as well as confusion among teaching staff. There are singular theoretical and empirical studies devoted to new challenges related to developing intercultural competences of teaching staff on the north-eastern borderland (Młynarczuk-Sokołowska & Szostak-Król 2014). This is the first scientific study on the current situation (in the context of socio-cultural changes in Podlasie). The aim of this study is to show on the based on literature analysis and the results of empirical research (method) with particular emphasis on the socio-cultural conditions of the north-eastern borderland: the specificity of academic education in Poland in the field of developing intercultural competence of teaching staff; role of non-governmental organizations in teacher education; current challenges of Polish intercultural education related to the education of teaching staff; examples of instructional educational initiatives developing intercultural competence among students and teachers. Conclusions and recommendations. Academic education in the field of preparing teaching staff to work in a culturally diverse space of education takes place during mandatory courses at universities, academies (e.g. Intercultural Education, Regional Education), non-obligatory specific postgraduate studies (Teaching Polish as a Foreign Language, Work with Students with Special Needs etc.). Non-governmental Organizations play a very important role in the process of developing intercultural competences among teachers, tutors and students. Educational initiatives of non-governmental organizations supplement academic education. NGOs undertake educational initiatives according to the current needs of teaching staff and students. Type of NGOs initiatives are: trainings, multipronged educational projects, study visits, preparing methodical books. According to the teaching staff non-governmental organizations activities: get specific and useful knowledge, enable to active learning, create space to share own experiences (source: research: Intercultural Non-formal Education …, Młynarczuk-Sokołowska 2015). There are many challenges associated with developing intercultural competences of the Polish teaching staff as: preparing to work with students with migrant background (in the context of cultural differences, special educational needs, etc.) and culturally diverse group (cultural knowledge, methodic), developing ability of diagnosis and designing educational process of students with migrant background according to their needs, preparing to use innovating methods and carry out educational programmes (in the field of teaching Polish as a foreign language, group integration) (Młynarczuk-Sokołowska, Szostak-Król 2014). In Podlasie, instructional educational initiatives (including pedagogical innovations) have been elaborated that are used by teachers in many Polish kindergartens and schools e.g. The First School of Intercultural Education in Podlasie “Students with Migrant Background the Space of Education”, The Programme for the Development of Sensitivity towards Otherness “Adventures of Different”, The trainings “Culturally Diverse School”. The biggest challenge facing the teaching staff in Poland is work with students with migrant background and culturally diverse groups. During designing teacher education should be taken account socio-cultural changes in the country and in a particular region. It would be beneficial to include the experiences of NGOs in the process of designing teacher education. The results of the study can be used during designing initiatives developing intercultural competence of teaching staff and students (in particular at universities).
Afiliacja: Anna Młynarczuk-Sokołowska: Wydział Nauk o Edukacji, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Jerzy Nikitorowicz: Wydział Nauk o Edukacji, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
E-mail: Anna Młynarczuk-Sokołowska:
Jerzy Nikitorowicz:
Typ Dokumentu: Other
Występuje w kolekcji(ach):Materiały konferencyjne (WNoE)

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