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http://hdl.handle.net/11320/6274
2020-11-29T22:27:01ZDual Lattice of ℤ-module Lattice
http://hdl.handle.net/11320/6283
Tytuł: Dual Lattice of ℤ-module Lattice
Autorzy: Futa, Yuichi; Shidama, Yasunari
Abstrakt: SummaryIn this article, we formalize in Mizar [5] the definition of dual lattice and their properties. We formally prove that a set of all dual vectors in a rational lattice has the construction of a lattice. We show that a dual basis can be calculated by elements of an inverse of the Gram Matrix. We also formalize a summation of inner products and their properties. Lattice of ℤ-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL(Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász) base reduction algorithm and cryptographic systems with lattice [20], [10] and [19].2017-01-01T00:00:00ZBasel Problem
http://hdl.handle.net/11320/6282
Tytuł: Basel Problem
Autorzy: Pąk, Karol; Korniłowicz, Artur
Abstrakt: SummaryA rigorous elementary proof of the Basel problem [6, 1] ∑n=1∞1n2=π26 is formalized in the Mizar system [3]. This theorem is item #14 from the “Formalizing 100 Theorems” list maintained by Freek Wiedijk at http://www.cs.ru.nl/F.Wiedijk/100/.2017-01-01T00:00:00ZAbout Quotient Orders and Ordering Sequences
http://hdl.handle.net/11320/6280
Tytuł: About Quotient Orders and Ordering Sequences
Autorzy: Koch, Sebastian
Abstrakt: SummaryIn preparation for the formalization in Mizar [4] of lotteries as given in [14], this article closes some gaps in the Mizar Mathematical Library (MML) regarding relational structures. The quotient order is introduced by the equivalence relation identifying two elements x, y of a preorder as equivalent if x ⩽ y and y ⩽ x. This concept is known (see e.g. chapter 5 of [19]) and was first introduced into the MML in [13] and that work is incorporated here. Furthermore given a set A, partition D of A and a finite-support function f : A → ℝ, a function Σf : D → ℝ, Σf (X)= ∑x∈X f(x) can be defined as some kind of natural “restriction” from f to D. The first main result of this article can then be formulated as: ∑x∈Af(x)=∑X∈DΣf(X)(=∑X∈D∑x∈Xf(x)) After that (weakly) ascending/descending finite sequences (based on [3]) are introduced, in analogous notation to their infinite counterparts introduced in [18] and [13].The second main result is that any finite subset of any transitive connected relational structure can be sorted as a ascending or descending finite sequence, thus generalizing the results from [16], where finite sequence of real numbers were sorted.The third main result of the article is that any weakly ascending/weakly descending finite sequence on elements of a preorder induces a weakly ascending/weakly descending finite sequence on the projection of these elements into the quotient order. Furthermore, weakly ascending finite sequences can be interpreted as directed walks in a directed graph, when the set of edges is described by ordered pairs of vertices, which is quite common (see e.g. [10]).Additionally, some auxiliary theorems are provided, e.g. two schemes to find the smallest or the largest element in a finite subset of a connected transitive relational structure with a given property and a lemma I found rather useful: Given two finite one-to-one sequences s, t on a set X, such that rng t ⊆ rng s, and a function f : X → ℝ such that f is zero for every x ∈ rng s \ rng t, we have ∑ f o s = ∑ f o t.2017-01-01T00:00:00ZBasel Problem – Preliminaries
http://hdl.handle.net/11320/6281
Tytuł: Basel Problem – Preliminaries
Autorzy: Korniłowicz, Artur; Pąk, Karol
Abstrakt: SummaryIn the article we formalize in the Mizar system [4] preliminary facts needed to prove the Basel problem [7, 1]. Facts that are independent from the notion of structure are included here.2017-01-01T00:00:00Z